Consequently, this court granted the AG leave to commence committal proceedings against the respondents, under O 52 r 3 1 of the Rules of Court 2012 "ROC".
Voller alleged that ten of those comments were defamatory.
The denial of knowledge was anchored on the following facts: i there was no requirement under the law which obligates the respondents to moderate every comment posted by the third party subscribers; ii neither of them authored the impugned comments; iii neither of them were involved in the posting of the impugned comments; iv neither of them moderated, or played any direct role in publishing the impugned comments on the news portal unless it was flagged for containing a "suspected word" or was reported by other users; v neither of them had been proven to have been actually aware that the impugned comments had been posted and that the impugned comments did not contain banned words or any "suspected word"; and vi as for the 2nd respondent, he denied any involvement whatsoever, since he was not the "Content Application Service Provider" within the meaning of s 6 of the Communications and Multimedia Act 1988 and he could not be viewed as being a publisher of the impugned comments.
A risk-averse approach that demanded that liability be imposed on the basis of constructive knowledge might result in the removal of non-contemptuous material, which in turn diluted the protection accorded to freedom of expression under art 10 of the Federal Constitution.
I immediately appreciate that defamation is far removed from contempt, as it is a civil wrong attracting civil remedies, largely damages, while contempt is quasi-criminal in character and carries penal consequences.
Malaysiakini republished from Bernama that press release as an article entitled "CJ orders all courts to be fully operational from July 1".
Those comments were taken down within a timeframe of 12 minutes, falling well within the purview of 'a reasonable time'.
Satu kumpulan dikenali Seed Community for a Professional Parliament SCPP dalam satu kenyataan berkata, perkara itu selaras Akta Majlis Parlimen Keistimewaan dan kuasa 1952 Akta 347 dan Perintah Tetap Dewan Rakyat Standing Order yang menyatakan bahawa Dewan Rakyat boleh memanggil mana-mana individu termasuk Peguam Negara untuk memberikan jawapan dan penjelasan berkaitan kuasa, hak dan keistimewaan Parlimen.
Apatah lagi sewaktu rakyat dan negara bergelut dengan kesan Covid-19 yang masih melanda.
Delfi was a large professionally managed Internet news portal that operated on a commercial basis with wide readership and there was a known public concern regarding the controversial nature of the comments it attracts; and x.
Description: Until awareness occurred, either by internal review or specific complaints being brought to the attention of the National Post or its columnists, the National Post was considered to be in a passive instrumental role as it had taken no deliberate action amounting to approval or adoption of the contents of the reader posts.